): 2,826,740. De 1977 ĝis 1985 li loĝis en Budapeŝto, kie li edziĝis al hungara esperantistino.Tie aperis liaj unuaj Esperantaj noveloj.En Budapeŝto Julian Modest … [116] Musala, at 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), is the highest point in both Bulgaria and the Balkan peninsula. Up to 30,000 Bulgarians were killed as Ottoman authorities put down the rebellion. Last Update: 2011-10-23 Usage Frequency: 1 Quality: Reference: Wikipedia Add a translation Get a better translation with 4,401,923,520 human contributions [121] Precipitation averages about 630 millimetres (24.8 in) per year, and varies from 500 millimetres (19.7 in) in Dobrudja to more than 2,500 millimetres (98.4 in) in the mountains. Bulgaria's troops refused to participate in military coups and also refused to send Jews to concentration camps in the Holocaust. [30][32][33] It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC,[34] attacked by Celts in the 3rd century,[35] and finally became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. [208] Most government spending on institutions is earmarked for security. [81], The Bulgarian principality won a war against Serbia and incorporated the semi-autonomous Ottoman territory of Eastern Rumelia in 1885, proclaiming itself an independent state on 5 October 1908. [73] The Russian Empire also asserted itself as a protector of Christians in Ottoman lands with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774. [316], High death rates result from a combination of an ageing population, a high number of people at risk of poverty and a weak healthcare system. The provinces are subdivided into 265 municipalities. The minority Bulgars formed a close-knit ruling caste. The Ottomans had very strict rules and the Bulgarians suffered. [369] Bulgarian media were described as generally unbiased in their reporting in the early 2000s and print media had no legal restrictions. [348] Nestinarstvo, a ritual fire-dance of Thracian origin, is included in the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. La nombron de la parolantaro oni taksas je 9 milionoj. [263] Private businesses accounted for more than 73% of R&D expenditures and employed 42% of Bulgaria's 22,000 researchers in 2015. [119] Most rivers are short and with low water levels. Each province is named after its local capital. clavis, hisp. [25] International military relations were further expanded with accession to NATO in March 2004[112] and the US-Bulgarian Defence Cooperation Agreement signed in April 2006. [219] Economic growth statistics take into account illegal transactions from the informal economy, which is the largest in the EU as a percentage of economic output. [163], Domestic defence is the responsibility of the all-volunteer Bulgarian armed forces, composed of land forces, navy and an air force. [309][310] It has had negative population growth since the early 1990s, when the economic collapse caused a long-lasting emigration wave. [90] The communist-dominated Fatherland Front took power, ended participation in the Axis and joined the Allied side until the war ended. [113] Bulgaria hosted the 2018 Presidency of the Council of the European Union at the National Palace of Culture in Sofia. [376] Mavrud, Rubin, Shiroka melnishka, Dimiat and Cherven Misket are the typical grapes used in Bulgarian wine. [358], А religious visual arts heritage includes frescoes, murals and icons, many produced by the medieval Tarnovo Artistic School. But all wartime territorial gains, with the notable exception of Southern Dobrudzha, were lost. See List of settlements in Bulgaria for a list of all large locations. [328] Average basic literacy stands high at 98.4% with no significant difference between sexes. La nascita delle chiavi, sebbene molto semplici, si può far risalire alla preistoria, quando l'uomo abitava ancora nelle caverne. [192][193] Despite its active international defence collaborations, Bulgaria ranks as among the most peaceful countries globally, tying 6th alongside Iceland regarding domestic and international conflicts, and 26th on average in the Global Peace Index. This page was last changed on 20 February 2021, at 11:56. Country Health Profile: Bulgaria 2017", "Bulgaria in World War II: The Passive Alliance", Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bulgaria&oldid=1011729357, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in the 680s, States and territories established in 1908, Bulgarian-speaking countries and territories, Turkish-speaking countries and territories, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia pages semi-protected from banned users, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Bulgarian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1922 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 March 2021, at 14:17. [352] The schools' emphasis on Christian scriptures made the Bulgarian Empire a centre of Slavic culture, bringing Slavs under the influence of Christianity and providing them with a written language. [340] Less than 3% of the population are affiliated with other religions and 11.8% are irreligious or do not self-identify with a religion. La chiave bulgara consiste in una specie di supporto morbido, una vera e propria chiave che legge i codici della serratura con un secondo strumento detto tensore, su cui si copia la forma della serratura ruotandola con poche gesti veloci. Qualcuno di voi mi ha chiesto informazioni sul “Grimaldello/Chiave Bulgara”. [311][312] The majority of children are born to unmarried women. [378], Bulgaria appeared at the first modern Olympic games in 1896, when it was represented by gymnast Charles Champaud. The retirement age for men is 64 years and for women 61 years. [165][166][167][168][169] Law enforcement is carried out by organisations mainly subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. Each release is of the highest quality and most user friendly. [68] Most of the local population then gradually lost its distinct national consciousness, identifying only by its faith. [265] Chronic government underinvestment in research since 1990 has forced many professionals in science and engineering to leave Bulgaria. [261], Spending on research and development amounts to 0.78% of GDP,[262] and the bulk of public R&D funding goes to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS). clave, it. [61] The empire reached its zenith under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241), when its borders expanded as far as the coast of Albania, Serbia and Epirus, while commerce and culture flourished. [123] [239] Despite repeated criticism from the European Commission,[235] EU institutions refrain from taking measures against Bulgaria because it supports Brussels on a number of issues, unlike Poland or Hungary. [88], The resulting political unrest led to the establishment of a royal authoritarian dictatorship by Tsar Boris III (1918–1943). [154][155][156] A caretaker government took over[157] and called the October 2014 elections[158] which resulted in a third GERB victory, but a total of eight parties entered parliament. But in a few years Bulgaria had serious money problems under the new socialist government. New championship render for Riho : SquaredCircle. It was superseded by the Treaty of Berlin, signed on 13 July. [303][304] Population density is 65 per square kilometre, almost half the European Union average. Ĉiu klefo havas por tio referenctonon, de kies pozicio deduktiĝas la pozicio de la aliaj tonoj. ", "Bulgaria Absolutely Ready to Take Over EU Presidency, Minister Says", "A seaside-villa scandal sparks huge protests in Bulgaria", United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, "Характеристика на флората и растителността на България", "Бъдещето на природните паркове в България и техните администрации", "Europe & North America: 297 biosphere reserves in 36 countries", "Checklist of the larger basidiomycetes ın Bulgaria", "Bulgaria – Environmental Summary, UNData, United Nations", "Report on European Environment Agency about the Nature protection and biodiversity in Europe", "Bulgaria Achieves Kyoto Protocol Targets – IWR Report", "Bulgaria's Air Is Dirtiest in Europe, Study Finds, Followed by Poland", "High Air Pollution to Close Downtown Sofia", "Bulgaria's Sofia, Plovdiv Suffer Worst Air Pollution in Europe", "Industrial facilities causing the highest damage costs to health and the environment", "Bulgaria's quest to meet the environmental acquis", "Report on European Environment Agency about the quality of freshwaters in Europe", "Overview of direct democratic instruments in Bulgaria", "Fitch: Early Bulgaria Elections Would Create Fiscal Uncertainty", "Bulgaria's government will include far-right nationalist parties for the first time", "Bulgarian Cabinet Faces No-Confidence Vote Over Atomic Plant", "Bulgarian government resigns amid growing protests", "Protests in Bulgaria and the new practice of democracy", "Rightist GERB holds lead in Bulgaria's election", "PM Hopeful: New Bulgarian Cabinet Will Be 'Expert, Pragmatic, "Bulgaria parliament votes for a 'Mario Monti' to lead government", "Bulgarians protest government of 'oligarchs, "Timeline of Oresharski's Cabinet: A Government in Constant Jeopardy", "Bulgaria's President Names Georgi Bliznashki as Prime Minister", "Bulgaria's 42nd Parliament Dissolved, Elections on October 5", "Bulgaria's Grand Parliament Chessboard Might Be Both Ailment and Cure", "Bulgaria's Borisov plasters together coalition government", "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack", "The Bulgarian Legal System and Legal Research", "US State Dept criticises Bulgaria on prisons, judiciary, corruption, people-trafficking and violence against minorities", "Questions arise again about Bulgaria's legal system", "Transparency International report: Bulgaria perceived as EU's most corrupt country", "Bulgaria Sets Up Anti-Corruption Unit; Security Chief Steps Down", "State Agency for National Security Official Website", "European Commission Enlargement Archives: Treaty of Accession of Bulgaria and Romania", "Vietnam Thanks Bulgaria for University Graduates", "Old ties with Russia weigh on Bulgarian decision in spy poisoning case", "Bulgaria Grows Uneasy as Trump Complicates Its Ties to Russia", "Bulgaria torn between Russia and the West", "US, Bulgaria sign defence co-operation agreement", "Bulgaria Will Modernize Its Army. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of … [352] Tzvetan Todorov is a notable contemporary author,[357] while Bulgarian-born Elias Canetti was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981. Bulgaria is a developing country with an upper-middle-income economy, very high Human Development Index; although it has the lowest GDP per capita and joint-lowest Human Development Index in the European Union. [278][279] Bulgarian instruments have been used in the exploration of Mars, including a spectrometer that took the first high quality spectroscopic images of Martian moon Phobos with the Phobos 2 probe. [227], Siphoning of public funds to the families and relatives of politicians from incumbent parties has resulted in fiscal and welfare losses to society. This group fell apart in 1989 with the fall of communism in Europe. Value added tax, excise duties, corporate and personal income tax are national, whereas real estate, inheritance, and vehicle taxes are levied by local authorities. [9], The state no longer has free health care. [144], Bulgaria became a member of the United Nations in 1955 and since 1966 has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council three times, most recently from 2002 to 2003. [307] Bulgaria subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43 years. [25][255][256][257] Within the services sector, tourism is a significant contributor to economic growth. [38] This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders, primarily through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia. [15], Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria. [326] Educational standards were once high,[327] but have declined significantly since the early 2000s. [164] The judiciary is overseen by the Ministry of Justice. 7,3 milionoj) … [191] The first deployment of foreign troops on Bulgarian soil since World War II occurred in 2001, when the country hosted six KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft and 200 support personnel for the war effort in Afghanistan. Ła confina col Mar Negro ad est, coła Grecia e la Turchia a sud, coła Serbia e ła Republica de Macedonia a ovest, e a nord coła Romania, da cui l'è separà dal Danubio.. Giografia połitega. Cosa sarebbe questo fantomatico Grimaldello Bulgaro? [110] The political system has three branches—legislative, executive and judicial, with universal suffrage for citizens at least 18 years old. Looking at Riho, Kenny Omega's Partner on BTE. Euro-Atlantic integration has been a priority since the fall of communism, although the communist leadership also had aspirations of leaving the Warsaw Pact and joining the European Communities by 1987. [214] It includes the capital city and the surrounding Sofia Province, which alone generate 42% of national gross domestic product despite hosting only 22% of the population. [180][181] Bulgaria signed the European Union Treaty of Accession on 25 April 2005,[182] and became a full member of the European Union on 1 January 2007. [258][259] Most visitors are Romanian, Turkish, Greek and German. Many of these are personified as witches, whereas other creatures like zmey and samodiva (veela) are either benevolent guardians or ambivalent tricksters. Help for people who lose their jobs is no longer automatic, but some help is available, based on family status and length of unemployment.[10]. [146] Boyko Borisov is serving his third term as prime minister since 2009,[147] when his centre-right, pro-EU party GERB won the general election and ruled as a minority government with 117 seats in the National Assembly. [381] Bulgarian athletes have also excelled in wrestling, boxing, gymnastics, volleyball and tennis. In 1185 Asen dynasty nobles Ivan Asen I and Peter IV organized a major uprising and succeeded in re-establishing the Bulgarian state. Sozopol was the last Bulgarian settlement to fall, in 1453. [252][253] Maize, barley, oats and rice are also grown. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, Bulgaria has been a unitary parliamentary republic composed of 28 provinces, with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. [335] In 2021, market research agency Reboot Online ranked Bulgaria as the best European country for women to work. [165] Government procurement in particular is a critical area in corruption risk. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. [16] Remains from Homo sapiens found there are dated c. 47,000 years BP.

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