CNN Video: Gaza History in 2 minutes What Is the Gaza Fence and Why Has It Set Off Protests Against Israel?Like other parts of the Holy Land, Gaza’s history stretches back to ancient times. It is separated by Israel from Jerusalem, which holds deep religious and cultural significance for both Arabs and Jews, with both Israel and Palestinians claiming Jerusal… The European Union states: "Gaza has experienced continuous economic decline since the imposition of a closure policy by Israel in 2007. Egypt did not offer them citizenship. [139], Hamas and other militant groups continued to fire Qassam rockets across the border into Israel. Al Deira beach is a popular venue for surfers.[239]. Gaza, now a Christian city, became rich and prosperous; and during the fifth and sixth centuries was the seat of a famous school of Christian rhetoricians. [249][250] The government's "Islamic Endowment Ministry" has deployed Virtue Committee members to warn citizens of the dangers of immodest dress, card playing and dating. As of 2018, most of the Palestinian inhabitants are the original 1948 war refugees and their descendants, many of them still living in refugee camps. The local civilian population does not answer to Israel. Egypt had attempted for a while to stop the use of tunnels for delivery of Egyptian fuel purchased by Palestinian authorities, and had severely reduced supply through the tunnel network. The main agricultural products are olives, citrus, vegetables, Halal beef, and dairy products. The Yasser Arafat International Airport opened on 24 November 1998 after the signing of the Oslo II Accord and the Wye River Memorandum. The current rate of trucks entering Gaza through Kerem Shalom is 250 trucks per day. After the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty 1979, a 100-meter-wide buffer zone between Gaza and Egypt known as the Philadelphi Route was established. [188] Benjamin Netanyahu said that it is impossible to lift the siege on Gaza and that the security of Israel is the primary issue for him. [142], The Israeli government uses economic means to pressure Hamas. "Therefore, Israel continues to maintain exclusive control of Gaza's airspace and the territorial waters, just as it has since it occupied the Gaza Strip in 1967. On 14 November 2008, Israel blockaded its border with Gaza after a five-month ceasefire broke down. [97], After a round of tit-for-tat arrests between Fatah and Hamas in the Gaza Strip and West Bank, the Hilles clan from Gaza were relocated to Jericho on 4 August 2008. In the Battle of Gaza in 2007, Hamas forcibly took over the Gaza Strip, which it has ruled as the de facto authority in the decade since. [45] The mandate formalized British rule in the southern part of Ottoman Syria from 1923–1948. Notable residents include Dunash Ibn Labrat, and Nathan of Gaza, advisor to false messiah Shabtai Zvi. [256] Moussa and 19 other people were killed when Hamas forces stormed his mosque and house. Ottoman rule continued until the years following World War I, when the Ottoman Empire collapsed and Gaza formed part of the League of Nations British Mandate of Palestine. Publication date 1907 Topics Gaza -- History Publisher New York : Columbia University Press Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor MSN Contributor Robarts - … The program was created in Malaysia in 1993, according to the school principal, Majed al-Bari. In 2014 French President François Hollande called for the demilitarization of Gaza and a lifting of the blockade, saying "Gaza must neither be an open prison nor a military base. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Civilian infrastructure, such as the Palestine airport, was destroyed by Israel. Most of the Gaza Strip administration funding comes from outside as an aid, with large portion delivered by UN organizations directly to education and food supply. [228] Wide-scale development has been made possible by the unhindered movement of goods into Gaza through the Kerem Shalom Crossing and tunnels between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. These factors demonstrate that Israel does not have control over Gaza. In November 2005, an "Agreement on Movement and Access" between Israel and the Palestinian Authority was brokered by then US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice to improve Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity in the Gaza Strip. [70] Goods were also permitted transit at the Karni crossing in the north. According to Tom Segev, moving the Palestinians out of the country had been a persistent element of Zionist thinking from early times. These weekly protests, called the … Under the Oslo Accords, the Philadelphi Route was to remain under Israeli control to prevent the smuggling of weapons and people across the Egyptian border, but Egypt (under EU supervision) committed itself to patrolling the area and preventing such incidents. The deadliest clashes occurred in the northern Gaza Strip, where General Muhammed Gharib, a senior commander of the Fatah-dominated Preventive Security Force, died when a rocket hit his home. The Gaza Strip, the 140 square mile stretch of land located along the Mediterranean coast between Egypt and Israel, has endured decades of protest, military operations and violence as Israel and the Palestinian Authority have both asserted the right to control the area. The situation has deteriorated further in recent months as a result of the geo-political changes which took place in the region during the course of 2013, particularly in Egypt and its closure of the majority of smuggling tunnels between Egypt and Gaza as well as increased restrictions at Rafah. Since the beginning of the Second Intifada, Gazans are no longer permitted to enter Israel for work purposes. Gaza is serviced by four internet service providers that now compete for ADSL and dial-up customers. At the same time, Israel increased its state of alert along the length of the Israel-Egypt Sinai border, and warned its citizens to leave Sinai "without delay. [65][66][67], In his statement on the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Richard Falk, United Nations Special Rapporteur wrote that international humanitarian law applied to Israel "in regard to the obligations of an Occupying Power and in the requirements of the laws of war. (Martin Abraham), b. It reserves the right to enter Gaza at will with its military and maintains a no-go buffer zone within the Gaza territory. Protesters as they inch closer to the border fence separating Israel and Gaza on May 14, 2018 in a camp east of Gaza City, Gaza. For example, in 2014, a Panamanian-flagged ship claiming to be carrying construction materials was boarded by the IDF and was found to contain Syrian produced rockets. The Palestinian Authority, led by Yasser Arafat, chose Gaza City as its first provincial headquarters. Find out why this small strip of land has been through so many conflicts and political upheavals since the end of World War II. to attempts by local Hamas officials to impose Islamic dress on women. 160 Palestinians killed each other in June alone.[86]. After the Israeli withdrawal in 2005 the Oslo Accords give the Palestinian Authority administrative authority in the Gaza Strip. The government was accused of being little more than a façade for Egyptian control, with negligible independent funding or influence. Egypt agreed to provide 600,000 liters of fuel to Gaza daily, but it had no way of delivering it that Hamas would agree to.[235]. According to Hamas, the deliveries to the Presidential Guard were intended to instigate sedition (against Hamas), while withholding money and assistance from the Palestinian people. Gaza and the West Bank are claimed by the de jure sovereign State of Palestine. ), The Palestinians: In Search of a Just Peace – Page 52, Cheryl Rubenberg – 2003, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSeib2012 (. [128], According to Egyptian authorities, the Army of Islam, a U.S. designated "terrorist organization" based in the Gaza Strip, is responsible for training and supplying many militant organizations and jihadist members in Sinai. [101] On 28 November, after a 24-hour period of quiet, the IDF facilitated the transfer of over thirty truckloads of food, basic supplies and medicine into Gaza and transferred fuel to the area's main power plant. [266] The Gaza Strip places 24th out of 135 countries according to Human Poverty Index. The increase in building activity has led to a shortage of construction workers. Its vast and desolate terrain has transformed it into a hotbed of illicit and militant activity. [130] The Hamas government of 2012 was the second Palestinian Hamas-dominated government, ruling over the Gaza Strip, since the split of the Palestinian National Authority in 2007. Egypt cannot ship diesel fuel to Gaza directly through the Rafah crossing point, because it is limited to the movement of individuals. An Islamist political group called Hamas won elections and took control of Gaza in 2006. "[68] Israel, the United States, Canada, and the European Union have frozen all funds to the Palestinian government after the formation of a Hamas-controlled government after its democratic victory in the 2006 Palestinian legislative election. According to Diskin, Hamas and Islamic Jihad had smuggled in over "5,000 rockets with ranges up to 40 km (25 mi)." Mounir el-Barash, the director of donations in Gaza's health department, claims 30% of aid sent to Gaza is used. The Gaza Strip's security is mainly handled by Hamas through its military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, internal security service, and civil police force. This made Gaza strategically important first to the Egyptian Pharaohs, and then to many … [131] The reshuffle of the previous government was approved by Gaza-based Hamas MPs from the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) or parliament. According to Amnesty International, under Hamas rule, newspapers were closed down and journalists were harassed. "Payment has been in suspension since August," said the source. By February 2009, food availability returned to pre-war levels but a shortage of fresh produce was forecast due to damage sustained by the agricultural sector. [258], The Gaza Museum of Archaeology was established by Jawdat N. Khoudary in 2008. [273], The Gaza Strip has been home to a significant branch of the contemporary Palestinian art movement since the mid 20th century. [190] After Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 28 May 2011, Egypt permanently opened its border with the Gaza Strip to students, medical patients, and foreign passport holders. [252], According to Human Rights Watch, the Hamas-controlled government stepped up its efforts to "Islamize" Gaza in 2010, efforts it says included the "repression of civil society" and "severe violations of personal freedom. In April 2012, the issue was resolved as certain amounts of fuel were supplied with the involvement of the Red Cross, after the Palestinian Authority and Hamas reached a deal. This downturn was attributed to Israeli closure policies and, to a lesser extent, corruption and mismanagement by Yasser Arafat. Following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, Egypt's military has destroyed most of the 1,200 tunnels which are used for smuggling food, weapons, and other goods to Gaza. Many had been recaptured after escaping prison which had been bombed during the war. Environmental problems include desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne diseases; soil degradation; and depletion and contamination of underground water resources. A Short History. Salah al-Din Road (also known as the Salah ad-Deen Highway) is the main highway of the Gaza Strip and extends over 45 km (28 mi), spanning the entire length of the territory from the Rafah Crossing in the south to the Erez Crossing in the north. Perceiving this as signal of American support for Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, Palestinians responded with protests at the Gaza-Israel border, which were met with Israeli force resulting in the deaths of dozens of protesters. Natural resources of Gaza include arable land—about a third of the strip is irrigated. The Red Cross claimed that the blockade harms the economy and causes a shortage of basic medicines and equipment such as painkillers and x-ray film. The al-Aqsa Intifada triggered tight IDF closures of the border with Israel, as well as frequent curbs on traffic in Palestinian self-rule areas, severely disrupting trade and labor movements. Egypt never annexed the Gaza Strip, but instead treated it as a controlled territory and administered it through a military governor. 9, No. Palestinian sources reported that European Union monitors fled the Rafah Border Crossing, on the Gaza–Egypt border for fear of being kidnapped or harmed. The Israeli settlers of Gush Katif built greenhouses and experimented with new forms of agriculture. A brief civil war between the two Palestinian groups had broken out in Gaza when, apparently under a U.S.-backed plan, Fatah contested Hamas's administration. The barrier was largely torn down by Palestinians at the beginning of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in September 2000.[59]. In June 1967, during the Six-Day War, Israel Defense Forces captured the Gaza Strip. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Economic output in the Gaza Strip declined by about one-third between 1992 and 1996. The Palestinian Authority pays for the salaries of some of its civil servants. [225] The farming effort faltered due to limited water supply, Palestinian looting, restrictions on exports, and corruption in the Palestinian Authority. Ahmed Abu Al-Amreen of the Hamas-run Energy Authority refused it on the grounds that the crossing is operated by Israel and Hamas' fierce opposition to the existence of Israel. A Sanger, 'The Contemporary Law of Blockade and the Gaza Freedom Flotilla,' in M.N. It is simply not plausible to argue that Israel exercises effective control over the Gaza Strip. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. [62], Former railway: see Palestine Railways#Railway in the Gaza Strip. A serious negative social effect of this downturn was the emergence of high unemployment. Following the takeover of Gaza by Hamas, the territory has been subjected to a blockade, maintained by Israel and Egypt,[36] with Israel arguing that it is necessary to impede Hamas from rearming and to restrict Palestinian rocket attacks and Egypt preventing Gaza residents from entering Egypt. "Palestinian officials said that a $10 million grant from Qatar was covering the cost of two weeks' worth of industrial diesel that started entering Gaza by truckload from Israel. Throughout, one theme prevails: Fatah and Hamas and Islamic Jihad's dream of a world without Israel and Jews. [238], The Gaza Strip is located in the Middle East (at 31°25′N 34°20′E / 31.417°N 34.333°E / 31.417; 34.333Coordinates: 31°25′N 34°20′E / 31.417°N 34.333°E / 31.417; 34.333). The Oslo Accords set limits for the Palestinian production and importation of energy. Jewish enterprises shut down, work relationships were severed, and job opportunities in Israel dried up. After the Israeli withdrawal, the gross domestic product of the Gaza Strip declined. On 1 February, Hamas killed 6 people in an ambush on a Gaza convoy which delivered equipment for Abbas' Palestinian Presidential Guard, according to diplomats, meant to counter smuggling of more powerful weapons into Gaza by Hamas for its fast-growing "Executive Force". Recently, natural gas was discovered. Israel advised people near military targets to leave before the attacks. [18] Gaza has an annual population growth rate of 2.91% (2014 est. Thousands of Palestinian refugees settled in the Gaza Strip. Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. In 2005, Israel withdrew from the Gaza Strip under their unilateral disengagement plan. The opening ceremony was held by the Islamic Society. In particular, he wrote that Israel was under no legal obligation to provide it with electricity, though it may choose to do so for humanitarian reasons. Aggression by Hamas led to Israeli military action on 1 March 2008, resulting in over 110 Palestinians being killed according to BBC News, as well as 2 Israeli soldiers. They are equipped with high-resolution cameras and other sensors. Ongoing violence prompted fear that it could bring the end of the Fatah-Hamas coalition government, and possibly the end of the Palestinian authority. The main trade partners of the Gaza Strip are Israel and Egypt.